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Tirpitz, Alfred von

(483 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Tirpitz, Alfred von (March 19, 1849, Küstrin – March 6, 1930, Ebenhausen), German admiral and politician. Tirpitz joined the Prussian Navy in 1865 and the Imperial Navy in 1871. From 1877 to 1888 he organized the navy’s torpedo arm. In 1892 became chief of staff of the naval command, and in 1896 chief of the cruiser division in East Asia, where he prepared the capture of Jiaozhou (Kiautschou). In June 1897 Tirpitz became secretary of state of the Imperial Navy, and additionally in 1898 a Prussian minister of state. In 1900 he was ennobled. In his Memorandum IX of 1894 he had already given t…

Venizelos, Eleftherios Kyriakos

(447 words)

Author(s): Loulos, Konstantin
Venizelos, Eleftherios Kyriakos (August 23, 1864, Mournies [Crete] – March 18, 1936, Paris), Greek politician. Regarded by many Greeks as the most significant national politician of the 20th century, Venizelos was a visionary and at the same time a practical politician. Moreover, he has the reputation of having created and fashioned modern Greece. As founder and leader of the Liberal Party, he played a vital role in the country’s development. Venizelos’ political career began when he emerged as lea…

Suez Canal

(398 words)

Author(s): Mönch, Winfried
Suez Canal A ship canal in Egypt, running between Port Said in the north and Suez in the south. The Suez Canal links the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean, via the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea. The canal was the target of Ottoman/German offensives launched from the Sinai Peninsula in 1915 and 1916, and from the beginning of 1917 the starting point for British operations against Palestine. It was of great strategic importance to the British Empire, as it was the shortest route between Britain and its colonies in East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. After the Ottoman Empire’s entry in…

Ottoman Empire

(2,352 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, Erik-Jan
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire entered the First World War on the side of the Central Powers in November 1914. The real decision to take this step was not made by the cabinet, but by an inner circle of Young Turk politicians on October 25. Two days later, on the orders of minister of war Enver Pasha, a Turkish naval force under the command of the German Admiral Souchon attacked the Russian Black Sea Fleet in its bases. The Turks later sought to justify this unprovoked attack by claiming that th…

Fighting on Two Fronts: Japan’s Involvement in the Siberian Intervention and the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918

(8,776 words)

Author(s): Otsubo, Sumiko
Otsubo, Sumiko - Fighting on Two Fronts: Japan’s Involvement in the Siberian Intervention and the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 ISFWWS-Keywords: Asia | Science, Technology, and Medicine | Russian Front | Soldiers and Combat | Russia The Decade of the Great War Tosh Minohara , Tze-ki Hon and Evan Dawley , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004274273 DOI: 10.1163/9789004274273_023 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Otsubo, Sumiko

A New Look at Japan’s Twenty-One Demands: Reconsidering Katō Takaaki’s Motives in 1915

(9,632 words)

Author(s): Naraoka, Sōchi
Naraoka, Sōchi - A New Look at Japan’s Twenty-One Demands: Reconsidering Katō Takaaki’s Motives in 1915 ISFWWS-Keywords: Asia | Politics | Britain | The French and British Empires | International Relations during the War | The United States of America The Decade of the Great War Tosh Minohara , Tze-ki Hon and Evan Dawley , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004274273 DOI: 10.1163/9789004274273_011 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Naraoka, Sōchi
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