Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Edited by: Geoffrey Khan
Associate editors: Shmuel Bolozky, Steven Fassberg, Gary A. Rendsburg, Aaron D. Rubin, Ora R. Schwarzwald, Tamar Zewi

The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of the Hebrew language from its earliest attested form to the present day.
The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online features advanced search options, as well as extensive cross-references and full-text search functionality using the Hebrew character set. With over 850 entries and approximately 400 contributing scholars, the Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online is the authoritative reference work for students and researchers in the fields of Hebrew linguistics, general linguistics, Biblical studies, Hebrew and Jewish literature, and related fields.

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Ultra Orthodox Jews: in Israel

(802 words)

Author(s): Assouline, Dalit
Yiddish is maintained in Israel as a spoken language only in some of the ultra-orthodox ( Ḥaredi) communities (Isaacs 1998; 1999a; 1999b). All adult speakers of Israeli Ḥaredi Yiddish are bilingual, speaking Israeli Hebrew on a daily basis, while using what they refer to as lošn-koydeš, literally ‘the Holy Tongue’ (< לשון הקודש lešon ha-qodeš), in specific domains, such as prayer and study. Most Ḥaredi Yiddish speakers, especially those considered kanóim ‘zealots’ (< קנאים qanaʾim) because of their religious and ideological radicalism, distinguish very clearly between…

Ultra-Orthodox Jews: in the Diaspora

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Glinert, Lewis
1. Introduction Ultra-Orthodox Jews or Haredim (from Rabbinic Hebrew חרדים x̱aredim ‘zealous [mpl]’) espouse a stringently traditionalistic lifestyle and philosophy (Glinert and Shilhav 1991). Since the fragmentation of Judaism in the 19th century, Jews identifying with Haredi traditionalism have emerged as a socio-geographically distinct group. Members of this group, to which currently at least ten percent (and rising) of Jews in the Diaspora and Israel belong, speak English, Hebrew, Yiddish, or French (…

Unaccusative

(1,063 words)

Author(s): Meltzer-Asscher, Aya | Siloni, Tal
In generative literature, intransitive verbs whose sole argument, the subject, is internal, i.e., base-generated as a complement (under-going the action), are labeled unaccusative verbs (Perlmutter 1978; Burzio 1986). They contrast with unergative intransitive verbs, whose subject is external (not a complement). Some examples of Hebrew unaccusatives are נפל nafal ‘to fall’, נכנס nixnas ‘to enter, go in’, התכווץ hitkaveṣ ‘to shrink’. Unaccusatives in Hebrew appear mostly in the hitpaʿel and nif ʿal templates; a few appear in qal. Siloni (2008:127) notes that the archaic nitpaʿel…

United States

(3,226 words)

Author(s): Goldman, Shalom
1. American Puritan Hebraism Against the Puritan Old Testament background of American religious life, New England intellectuals and scholars were eager to study the Bible, both in translation and in the Hebrew original. The Pilgrims’ engagement with Hebrew and biblical studies began long before they reached New England. Some of them had studied Hebrew with Continental European scholars, especially in the Low Countries; others embarked on the study of Hebrew and the Bible through the use of Buxtorf’s dictionaries and other study aids. Two Hebraists, William Bradford and William…

Universities, Hebrew Studies in

(2,811 words)

Author(s): Kirtchuk, Pablo
Hebrew has been studied in the most important Universities ever since the Renaissance, though the process leading to its institutionalization had begun already in the Middle Age. In those universities as well as in more recent ones it is still studied as a language of culture, prestige, and research. In addition, many other universities offer courses of Contemporary Hebrew without necessarily having dedicated departments. By the middle of the 13th century, Roger Bacon of Oxford (ca. 1240–1290) advocated the study of Hebrew for other than missionary purposes,…