Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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Subject: Language and Linguistics

Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard and Rudolf de Jong

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online comprehensively covers all aspects of Arabic languages and linguistics. It is interdisciplinary in scope and represents different schools and approaches in order to be as objective and versatile as possible. The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online is cross-searchable and cross-referenced, and is equipped with a browsable index. All relevant fields in Arabic linguistics, both general and language specific are covered and the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Online includes topics from interdisciplinary fields, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and computer science.

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Sabab

(1,219 words)

Author(s): Michael G. Carter
The semantic link is almost always indicated by an anaphoric pronoun, usually suffixed (such as ʾaxāhuhis brother’ in the example above), although occasionally reference may be through a ‘concealed’ pronoun ( ḍamīr mustatir), e.g. ʾanta fa-nḏ̣ur “you, look [you]!”, where the 2nd person masculine singular agent pronoun is incorporated in the imperative verb [u]nḏ̣ur ‘look!’, or even by simple lexical rep-etition, as in the verse lā ʾarā l-mawta yasbiqu l-mawta šayʾun ‘I do not think death, anything will outrun death’, where the second instance of ‘death’ would, in prose…

Sajʿ

(2,436 words)

Author(s): Gert Borg
1. Introduction …

Salt, Dialect of

(8,094 words)

Author(s): Bruno Herin
1. Introduction…

Sandhi

(2,701 words)

Author(s): Robert D. Hoberman
What is significant about sandhi in all its senses is the fact that it depends on constituents and their boundaries, and therefore it marks or indicates those boundaries. Sandhi facilitates the hearer's identification of morphemes within a word or of the boundaries between phrases within a sentence. Thus, in Classical Arabic the alternation between the full and pausal forms of words helps mark phrase boundaries; for example, in madīnatun kabīrah ‘a big city’, the -h in the pausal form kabīrah (as opposed to the full form kabīratun, which occurs in other situations) marks it as be…

Ṣarf

(3,029 words)

Author(s): Joyce Åkesson
1. Definition …

Saudi Arabia

(4,992 words)

Author(s): Bruce Ingham
1. Introduction …

Šāwi Arabic

(6,589 words)

Author(s): Igor Younes | Bruno Herin
1. Introduction The term Šāwi may refer to various unrelated groups, such as one of the Berber varieties spoken in Algeria, the sheep-breeder Bedouins of inner Oman, as well as the sheep-breeder Bedouins of the Syro-Mesopotamian area. The root š-w-y also appears in the ethnonym Šuwa, which refers to some Arabic…

Ṣawt

(5 words)

see Sound Symbolism

Scope and approach of the Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Eid, Mushira | Elgibali, Alaa | Versteegh, Kees | Woidich, Manfred | Zaborski, Andrzej
The EALL is a comprehensive encyclopedia covering all relevant aspects of the study of Arabic and dealing with all levels of the language (pre-Classical Arabic, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic vernaculars, mixed varieties of Arabic), both synchronically and diachronically. It has been published in five volumes with a total of two million words, distributed over approximately 500 entries. The treatment includes both the external and the internal history of the language, as well as the st…

Script

(6 words)

see Arabic Alphabet: Origin …

Second Language Teaching

(6,920 words)

Author(s): Helle Lykke Nielsen
1. Introduction This entry focuses on the didactics of teaching Arabic in a Western context, particularly at the university level, since this is where Arabic is most often taught in the West. In recent…

Secret Languages

(3,006 words)

Author(s): Abderrahim Youssi
1. Definition of secret languages Dissimulation, one of the current functions of language, is the process whereby communicants reso…

Semantic Bleaching

(2,616 words)

Author(s): Mohssen Esseesy
1. Semantic bleaching and grammaticalization …

Semantic Extension

(3,463 words)

Author(s): Mohssen Esseesy
Multiple senses attached to a single linguistic form are possibly widespread in other languages. In English, for example, almost 40 percent of entries in Webster's seventh dictionary show more than one meaning (Byrd 1987, cited in Ravin and Leacock 2000:1). A cursory review of Hans Wehr's root-based Arabic-English dictionary shows that the great majority of Arabic roots are polysemous, and the possibility for semantic extension of the vague core cluster of senses increases when the set of (tri)consonantal roots is expanded in derived forms. It is with great…

Semitic Languages

(5,398 words)

Author(s): Rainer Voigt
1. Arabic as an archaic Semitic language Historically, the core region of the Semitic peoples during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C.E. lay in the Fertile Crescent (Palestine – Syria – Mesopotamia). Therefore, their assumed shared original homeland cannot have been situated very far from there. Applying a genetically based distribution model of the individual Semitic peoples, it may be assumed that they emerged from the Syrian desert/steppe and infiltrated the fertile agrarian lands to the east, west, an…
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